Category Archives: Publications

Guide för sanitära resursåterställningsprodukter & tekniker är nu publicerad!

Vi är mycket glada att dela med oss av den första upplagan av Guide to Sanitation Resource Recovery Products & Technologies. Guiden är en populärvetenskaplig publikation som ger en översikt över möjliga resurser som kan återvinnas och ger vägledning om behandlingsprocesser för att uppnå säkra produkter för återanvändning. De specifika målen för detta dokument är:

  1. Att utsätta användaren för ett brett spektrum av återvunna sanitetsprodukter och innovativa behandlingstekniker.
  2. Att hjälpa användaren att utforma funktionella lösningar för resursåtervinning genom att illustrera kopplingarna mellan sanitetsingångar, behandlingsteknik och återvinningsbara produkter.
  3. Att ge en översikt av grundläggande information om designaspekter, driftskrav och hälso-, säkerhets- och sociala överväganden relaterade till resursåtervinningsteknik och produkter.
  4. Beskriv och presentera teknologispecifika fördelar och nackdelar.

Guiden för sanitära resursåterställningsprodukter och tekniker är främst en referensbok. Den är avsedd att användas av ingenjörer, planerare, slutanvändare, forskare, teknikutvecklare, sanitetsentreprenörer, icke-statliga organisationer (NGO) och studenter som är intresserade av att skapa cirkulära system för resursanvändning. Det syftar till att stödja och möjliggöra beslutsfattande för ökad resursåtervinning genom att tillhandahålla information om viktiga beslutskriterier för en rad återvunna produkter och behandlingsteknik, och därigenom lyfta fram de olika möjligheterna för resursåtervinning.

Länk för att ladda ner guiden:

https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/21284/

https://www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resources-and-publications/library/details/4008

Continue reading Guide för sanitära resursåterställningsprodukter & tekniker är nu publicerad!

Guide to Sanitation Resource Recovery Products & Technologies published!

We are very pleased to share with you the 1st edition of the Guide to Sanitation Resource Recovery Products & Technologies. The Guide is a popular science publication that gives an overview of the possible resources that can be recovered and provides guidance on treatment processes to achieve safe products for reuse. The specific objectives of this document are:

  1. To expose the user to a broad range of recovered sanitation products and innovative treatment technologies.
  2. To help the user to design functional solutions for resource recovery by illustrating the linkages between sanitation inputs, treatment technology and the recoverable products.
  3. To provide an overview of basic information regarding design aspects, operational requirements, and health, safety and social considerations related to resource recovery technologies and products.
  4. Describe and fairly present technology-specific advantages and disadvantages.

The Guide to Sanitation Resource Recovery Products and Technologies is primarily a reference book. It is intended to be used by engineers, planners, end-users, researchers, technology developers, sanitation entrepreneurs, non-governmental organisation (NGO) staff and students who are interested in creating circular systems for resource use. It aims to support and enable decision making for increased resource recovery by providing information on key decision criteria for a range of recovered products and treatment technologies, thus highlighting the diversity of options available for resource recovery.

Links to download the guide:

https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/21284/

https://www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resources-and-publications/library/details/4008

Continue reading Guide to Sanitation Resource Recovery Products & Technologies published!

Publication on field testing alkaline urine dehydration at pilot-scale in Finland

In early 2019, we designed and installed a pilot shell system to dry fresh urine collected from about 100 toilet users each day (or a maximum of 30 liters of urine day-1). The system was implemented at a Finnish army training ground (Camp Mauri) belonging to Pori Brigade, which is a garrison in Säkylä, Finland and was used for a period of three months between March and May 2019. In a new publication in the journal Frontiers in Environmental Science, we describe results of the evaluation of the technology. The publication can be openly accessed here:

Simha P, Karlsson C, Viskari E-L, Malila R and Vinnerås B (2020). Field Testing a Pilot-Scale System for Alkaline Dehydration of Source-Separated Human Urine: A Case Study in Finland. Front. Environ. Sci. 8:570637. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2020.570637

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Publikation om fältarbete av alkalisk urintorkning i pilotskala i Finland

I början av 2019 designade och installerade vi ett pilotskalssystem för att torka färsk urin som samlats in från cirka 100 toalettanvändare varje dag (eller högst 30 liter urin dag-1). Systemet implementerades på en finsk arméutbildningsplats (Camp Mauri) som tillhör Pori Brigade, som är garnison i Säkylä, Finland och användes under en period av tre månader mellan mars och maj 2019. I en ny publikation i tidskriften Frontiers in Environmental Science, vi beskriver resultaten av utvärderingen av tekniken. Publikationen kan öppnas här:

Simha P, Karlsson C, Viskari E-L, Malila R and Vinnerås B (2020). Field Testing a Pilot-Scale System for Alkaline Dehydration of Source-Separated Human Urine: A Case Study in Finland. Front. Environ. Sci. 8:570637. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2020.570637

Continue reading Publikation om fältarbete av alkalisk urintorkning i pilotskala i Finland

New book chapter discusses alkaline urine dehydration at scale

In a bio-based circular economy, domestic wastewater has a significant role to play. By separating wastewater into different fractions at the source, it is possible to create new pathways for recycling resources. In a book chapter published in Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Simha et al. discuss about the most nutrient-rich wastewater fraction, human urine. We present a new, simple, yet potentially revolutionary nutrient recycling technology — alkaline urine dehydration. We then describe how this technology can be combined with urine-diverting toilets and integrated with existing sanitation infrastructure to create a service chain that safely collects, contains, transports, and applies urine as fertilizer. The potential benefits, risks, knowledge gaps, and challenges surrounding the implementation of a urine-diverting and dehydrating sanitation system are discussed. Finally, the prospect of creating smart toilets and digitizing the proposed sanitation system are explored. To read the full chapter, follow the link below:

Simha, P., Senecal, J., Gustavsson, D. J., & Vinnerås, B. (2020). Resource recovery from wastewater: a new approach with alkaline dehydration of urine at source. In Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering (pp. 205-221). Elsevier.

Alternatively, Click here to access the freely available pre-print version of the chapter on RG

New publication on fate of Ascaris at various pH, temperature and moisture levels

A new study assessed the inactivation of Ascaris eggs under various conditions and observed that the exposure of Ascaris eggs to elevated pH (10.5–12.5) at temperatures <27.5 °C for >70 days had no effect on egg viability. To accelerate the inactivation of STH, an increase in the treatment temperature is more effective than pH increase. Alkaline pH alone did not inactivate the eggs but can enhance the effect of ammonia, which is likely to be present in organic wastes.

Follow the link to access the article: https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2020.264

Senecal, J., Nordin, A., & Vinnerås, B. (2020). Fate of Ascaris at various pH, temperature and moisture levels. Journal of Water and Health.

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New Publication on drying human urine using different alkaline media & temperatures

In a study recently published in Science of the Total Environment, we present results from a study that investigated drying of fresh source-separated human urine in five different alkaline media (pH > 11) at elevated temperatures (50 and 60 °C) with minimal loss of urea, urine’s principal nitrogen compound. We found that it was possible to concentrate urine 48 times, yielding dry end-products with high fertiliser value: approximately, 10% N, 1% P, and 4% K. We monitored the physicochemical properties and the composition of various dehydration media to provide useful insights into their suitability for dehydrating urine. We demonstrated that it is possible to recover >90% nitrogen when treating fresh urine by alkaline dehydration by inhibiting the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea at elevated pH and minimising the chemical hydrolysis of urea with high urine dehydration rates.

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Using Hermetia illucens larvae to process biowaste from aquaculture production

A paper was published in the Journal of Cleaner Production as a result of the partnership established between the Environmental Engineering Research Group at SLU and the PhD candidate Ivã Guidini Lopes, a researcher from São Paulo, Brazil. This paper addresses the management of waste generated in aquaculture enterprises (fish carcasses) by larvae of the black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens).

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Pharmaceutical pollution of water resources in Nakivubo wetlands & Lake Victoria, Uganda

This study investigated the occurrence and removal in wastewater and water bodies in Nakivubo wetland area and Inner Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, of common prescription and non-prescription pharmaceutically-active substances (PhACs) sold in Kampala city, Uganda. A questionnaire was sent to 20 pharmacies in Kampala, to identify the most commonly sold PhACs in the city. During two sampling campaigns, samples were collected from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and effluent and surface water samples from Nakivubo channel, Nakivubo wetland and Inner Murchison Bay. The concentrations of 28 PhACs, organic matter, solids and nutrients in water samples were analysed. Ciprofloxacin (antibiotic), cetirizine (anti-allergy), metformin (anti-diabetes), metronidazole (antibiotic) and omeprazole (gastric therapy) were reported by pharmacies to be the PhACs most commonly sold in the study area. Chemical analysis of water samples revealed that trimethoprim (antibiotic) and sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic) were the dominant PhACs in water from all sites except Lake Victoria.

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Pharmaceuticals in source separated sanitation systems: Fecal sludge and blackwater treatment

In this article, the occurrence and fate of 29 multiple-class pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in two source separated sanitation systems based on: (i) batch experiments for the anaerobic digestion (AD) of fecal sludge under mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (52 °C) conditions, and (ii) a full-scale blackwater treatment plant using wet composting and sanitation with urea addition. For more information, please read: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896971935524X .