Tag Archives: research

Stina Hellman – PhD Student in Immunology

It’s a warm Thursday evening when Stina and I find a seat next to the stables. She is holding the lead rope of the horse she has just been riding, who enthusiastically puts his nose into the grass. Not the most common circumstances for an interview, but in a way it suits the occasion: Stina recently started a PhD about vaccination against parasites in horses. Her blonde hair blows in the wind while she looks at the sweaty horse with satisfaction. I am happy she could squeeze in the interview today. There are few people I know who are as busy as she, yet she always seems full of energy.

Stina started studying psychology in Trollhättan as well as biology in Gothenburg, but realised this was not what she wanted. At the age of twenty-three she moved to Uppsala and followed the animal science agronomy programme at SLU and graduated with a master in infection biology. I ask her if a PhD was her ambition from the start? “No, I never plan anything really” she hesitates a little bit before she continues, “erhm, maybe that is not normal but I don’t have this goal of being something. I always chose things that I think was fun.” “Or interesting?”, I ask, finishing her sentence. “Or interesting, but many things are interesting!”, she adds enthusiastically. She explains that one of the reasons for her to choose SLU was that it deals with everything she thinks is important. “It doesn’t matter which programme you choose, you still get some perspective on food, how to supply our growing population with food and environmental questions.” In her opinion a really good strength to have such perspective, no matter what you end up working with.


Stina and the thoroughbred gelding Exhibition

Of course I am very interested in her PhD project and want to know all about it. She tells me she works at the section of immunology. “The department is a long name. I don’t know if you want to hear it.” We both laugh, and as I insist she tells she works at ‘The Department of Biomedicine and Veterinary Public Health’. “So the project is about developing a vaccine against the large bloodworm, this intestinal parasite in horses.” I can’t help to laugh again, since at the start of our conversation she revealed how she wanted to keep horses for a hobby only, not for a job. She realizes, laughs as well and adds quickly “That was not my main focus! Because when I started to work at SLU, I started with pigs.” She explains how it is actually not that different, since the lab part is very similar. She does not do labs on living animals, but uses blood tests only. “That’s a part of the project, to do a lot without having laboratory animals. Very often we get stuck in old patterns, but we can try a little bit more. Or at least evaluate something first outside the animal before we go into the animal.”

“I know there will not be a finished vaccine after my studies, because this is a totally new project, this is the start.”

I’d like to know what the aim is for her four years project. She explains that she works on establishing methodology, how we can make this vaccine. “I know there will not be a finished vaccine after my studies, because this is a totally new project, this is the start.” However, this will not stop her from gathering as much information as possible to continue this towards developing the vaccine. Naturally I also want to know why we need the vaccine? “We have increasing problems with anthelmintic resistance today.” She tells me all about how the large bloodworm causes most damage to the horse and how the resistance in the small bloodworm could lead to increased prevalence of the large bloodworm in the future. Nowadays a common method is deworming with an oral paste, I am interested why we should change to a vaccine. “Most of the substances that are toxic to parasites are also toxic to insects and other organisms in nature. One problem is that when we give too much oral paste this will come out in the faeces, come out into nature.” She doesn’t expect the vaccine to be a ‘one fix solution’, but it could be used together with mucking and deworming.

“What I missed was creativity, which I get in the PhD.”

I am keen to know what she is planning after her PhD. Would she like to stay involved in research? I know it’s not an easy question to answer, and indeed she does not know yet. “I am not very driven towards a goal for myself. I want to develop, I want to get better, I want to be a good PhD. But I don’t really care if I end up in a company or if I end up doing a postdoc for example.” Setting goals for the future is not the way she approaches life. “I think being open will lead me somewhere I never thought I would be.” In her opinion most places are really good to work. “I worked with elderly care and care for children with disabilities. And I think these are really nice jobs! They have their goods and bads, but what I missed was creativity, which I get in the PhD.” I am happy to hear she feels like she can express herself like that in her work now. Stina thinks for a moment and adds, “I think that is because I have a good supervisor, that lets me do it.”

A selfie in the lab. Photo Stina Hellman.

The horse pulls his rope, he wants some new grass, but we aren’t finished yet. I ask Stina about her daily life as a PhD student. She tells me she sees her supervisor almost daily, and how they discuss many things going on in the lab. It seems hard to sketch a ‘normal day’. “It is very flexible. I can decide mostly what to do and when to do it, based on what I have discussed with my supervisors.” She has four supervisors, besides her own there are three ‘co-supervisors’; usually people from other departments or companies. “Right now I am doing cell culturing, I isolate cells from horse blood and expose them to vaccine components: Substances you can include to get a better and more efficient vaccine.” There are days filled with molecular works in the lab, other days she spends analysing data at the computer. Furthermore she spends time writing, discussing articles in a ‘journal club’ and participating in weekly meetings. “And in the autumn I will start some courses, all PhD students have to take courses.”

“It is nothing that is impossible for a normal person. You don’t have to be a super person.”

Finally I am wondering if she has any advice for people who are in doubt if they want to do a PhD position or not. She responds immediately, and says without any doubt: “If you’re interested in the subject, you should do it!” In her opinion, if you are worried about something you should simply talk to people: Ask other PhD students, your (potential) supervisor, etc. “Many people say ‘Oh, it must be really difficult!’, but I don’t think its more difficult than a normal job.” She emphasizes the need of being responsible and interested in the topic. “It is nothing that is impossible for a normal person. You don’t have to be a super person.” I guess she is right. However, I can’t help myself from thinking Stina may not realize herself how much of a super person she truly is.

I’d like to thank Stina for her time and contribution. This interview was the third of a  series I named ‘Inspired by’, in which I’d like to introduce you to other people and their perspectives. If you have any ideas, questions or comments please write them below.

Rosan

Catching Chickens & Collecting Data

After considering the study design, pilot studies and necessary preparations, we’ve been running our preference test for a couples of weeks now. This means that a few groups of our chickens are moved from their home pen to the test pen, where they will be observed closely for a couple of days. Observations run through a live camera system and are executed multiple times a day. The results are our so called ‘data’ and play the lead role for my degree project. Analysing these data will keep me busy for probably the rest of summer!


A sneak peek into our ‘research kitchen’ – Keeping an eye out on both halves of all test pens

The idea sounds not too difficult, but it took some time to get the hang of a smooth practical execution. Because after each round of observations the chickens need to be moved back to their home pens, lights will need to be swapped and the pens cleaned before moving in the new groups. And also, how are you going to catch and handle the chickens, without causing them a lot of stress? Turning of the lights in the stables completely, turned out to be a magic spell to be able to catch and lift the chickens in a calm manner and move them into their moving boxes. Though it’s quite fun to do, it’s physically demanding, on one day you might have to catch and move almost a hundred chickens!

Any questions? Feel free to ask them below.

Rosan

Visit to Lövsta: The Swedish Livestock Research Centre

Included in the course Animal environment, welfare and housing are several excursions. This week we spent a day at the pig and cattle facilities of SLU’s main research centre: Lövsta. There is a lot of information about Lövsta available on the SLU webpage, please have a look if you’re interested. The nice thing about Lövsta is that everything is modern, there are lots of opportunities to researchers and all different types of livestock are located in close approximation to each other. The downside of Lövsta is that it’s very costly to the University and the location is very hard to reach for those without a car. Luckily this excursion was well organized and transportation was included.


The map of the cattle facilities is displayed on the windows on the top floor,
from where visitors have a good overview on the different housing types.

The day started with an introductory lecture at the research centre. Though it was not the first time for me to visit Lövsta, it was an interesting lecture in which I heard a lot of new things. It was explained how the several parts of the stables function and what problems are faced. And it was fascinating to hear all about the ongoing research. For example right now they are experimenting with different types of floor scrapers for the dairy cattle. Which one is disturbing the cows the least? Another experiment looked at the importance of the neck rail and whether it could be moved or removed to increase cow comfort.

 
Upper left: A cow stepping over a floor scraper. Upper right: This flooring reduces slippery, but what about hygiene? Below: The Swedish red cow breed has a reputation of being more robust and fertile compared to Holstein-Frisians.

Half of the day was spent with the cattle, the other half was spent with the pigs. It’s not that I don’t like cows, but I just… adore pigs. Big time. They are such curious, social and smart creatures. At the pig stables we used most time to compare the different housing systems, the building constructions, space availability, ventilation, manure system, etc. In Sweden pig welfare is by far more protected by law compared to other EU countries. For example the provision of straw is obligatory and tail docking is not a standard procedure. Another large difference is the housing system of lactating sows – crating is not permitted. Therefore the sow can have much more interaction with her piglets, which is a beautiful sight to watch. Still, it’s not perfect, but in terms of welfare the standards of conventional pig production in Sweden are impressive.

 
Upper left: Deep litter bedding for dry sows. Upper right: Intact tails of growers. Below: Interactiong between the lactating sow and her offspring.

Crating or not crating of sows is a much debated topic, on which I could elaborate for many pages. I think Swedish pig production deserves a post of it’s own, perhaps I can do that next week. If you have questions already or some comments, you’re welcome to reply below.

Rosan

ps. Just one more pig photo, I mean, aren’t they adorable?

The degree project

Last week we changed from the first half of the Autumn semester to the second half. It’s hard to believe already a quarter of this academic year has flown by again. I am kind of sad that the horse-course is over, but I guess all good things must come to an end. However I am planning on writing a few more posts on the course and also I haven’t gotten my exam back yet… so might not be over at all. However, for now I would like to tell you about my new course. Actually, it’s not really a ‘course’-course, I am starting this period with my degree project – also known as master thesis. This project is accountable for a quarter of the total amount of ECTS in the master programme Animal Science, so yes, kind of important 😉

“For most of us the degree project will be the first time to actually take part in an experiment.”

As I see it a degree project is kind of a sneak peak into academic life, like an internship on a PhD-position. Even though you may already have written a thesis for you bachelor, for most of us the degree project will be the first time to actually take part in an experiment. As a student in Animal Science this often concerns animal experiments, something that should not be considered lightly. Luckily a lot of these studies are not invasive to the animals, but it depends strongly on what direction your specializing in.

Right now I am going through the registration process and am working on my research plan proposal. This means that I already should have a clear idea of what and how I am planning to do the research. As my project is part of a larger project, certain things are already decided while other aspects are still open to my own interpretation. And of course everything is guided by your supervisor.

I am looking very much forward on the work ahead in the degree project but I must admit that the beginning is a bit of a struggle.  In Dutch we have a saying ‘Alle begin is moeilijk’, which literally translates to ‘all starts are difficult’. I think there’s a lot of truth to it, or at least there is for me, haha. However, there is another saying ‘Een goed begin is het halve werk‘ which means ‘a good start is half the job’. My point being that the start may be difficult, but doing the beginning properly will pay off later 🙂

Rosan